Predicate: keep

Roleset id: keep.01 , maintain possession, Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep.01: KEEP-V NOTES: (from keep.01-v) KEEPING-N NOTES: (from keeping.01-n)


keeping (n.)
keep (v.)


        Arg0-PAG: Keeper (vnrole: 15.2-agent, 55.6-agent)
        Arg1-PPT: thing kept (vnrole: 15.2-theme, 55.6-theme)

Example: plain old transitive

        The Herald kept its old-time Hearst readership.

        Arg0: The Herald
        Rel: kept
        Arg1: its old-time Hearst readership

Example: nominal

        The keeping of animals

        Rel: kept
        Arg1: of animals

Roleset id: keep.02 , aspectual, Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep.02: KEEP-V NOTES: (from keep.02-v) KEEPING-N NOTES: (from keeping.02-n)


keep (v.)
keeping (n.)


        Arg0-PAG: causer of continued action (vnrole: 55.6-agent)
        Arg1-PPT: continued entity (vnrole: 55.6-theme)
        Arg2-PRD: continued state or action (vnrole: 55.6-predicate)

Example: ARG0 and ARG2

        Lee Ying - yuan , a DPP legislator who is tapped to be the next deputy representative of the ROC in Washington , states that at the moment the formal channels between Taiwan and the US are functioning very smoothly , and that Chen 's keeping of his promise to make an August stopover in Los Angeles very low - key has strengthened mutual trust between the US and the new government .

        Arg0: Chen 's
        Rel: keeping
        Arg2: of his promise to make an August stopover in Los Angeles very low - key

Example: object control with sentential attribute

        Ringers keep the bells sounding in the many belfries of East Anglia.

        Arg0: Ringers
        Rel: keep
        Arg1: the bells
        Arg2: sounding in the many belfries of East Anglia

Example: object control with Adj attribute

        The captain kept the crew loyal.

        Arg0: The captain
        Rel: kept
        Arg1: the crew
        Arg2: loyal

Example: nominal use may be rare or ackward

        The maintenance, the keeping going of the body

        Rel: keeping
        Arg2: going of the body

Roleset id: keep.03 , light verb-- FOR AMR USE ONLY, Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep.03: KEEP-V NOTES: For use by AMR for light verbs. PropBank should use the existing .LV roleset instead.


keep (v.)


        Arg0-PAG: agenty thing
        Arg1-PPT: noun
        Arg2-PPT: perpositional object

Example: keep_pace

        Newsweek keeps pace with its rival Time.

        Arg0: Newsweek
        Rel: keeps
        Arg1: pace
        Arg2: with its rival Time

Example: keep_track

        The state keeps track of the achievement-test preparation booklets.

        Arg0: The state
        Rel: keeps
        Arg1: track
        Arg2: of the achievement-test preparation booklets

Roleset id: keep.04 , maintain some prepositional relationship, Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep.04: KEEP-V NOTES: This roleset shows some relationship between nouns or gerundsdescribed by the preposition introducing the second noun, and the'keep' is causing or maintaining that relationship. (from keep.04-v) KEEPING-N NOTES: (from keeping.04-n)


keeping (n.)
keep (v.)


        Arg0-PAG: causer of separation (vnrole: 55.6-agent)
        Arg1-PPT: one noun (vnrole: 55.6-theme)
        Arg2-PPT: other noun

Example: be careful with 'from'!

        person: ns,  tense: ns,  aspect: ns,  voice: active,  form: full

        Growers can't always keep the worm from the apple.

        Arg0: Growers
        Argm-mod: ca
        Argm-neg: n't
        Argm-tmp: always
        Rel: keep
        Arg1: the worm
        Arg2: from the apple

Example: keep from: quasi-aspectual

        Japanese demand has kept the U.S. currency from *trace* plunging.

        Arg0: Japanese demand
        Rel: kept
        Arg1: the U.S. currency
        Arg2: from *trace* plunging

Example: keep out

        Britain kept light tanks out of the talks.

        Arg0: Britain
        Rel: kept
        Arg1: light tanks
        Arg2: out of the talks

Example: keep off

        Keep your Foster Savings Institution off the federal budget deficit.

        Arg0: *trace*
        Rel: Keep
        Arg1: your Foster Savings Institution
        Arg2: off the federal budget deficit

Example: with attributive

        The Fed kept inflation-fighting as its top priority.

        Arg0: The Fed
        Rel: kept
        Arg1: inflation-fighting
        Arg2: as its top priority

Roleset id: keep.06 , prepositional, comforming (only annotated by amr), prepositional (keeping with), Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep.06: KEEP-V NOTES: PropBankers: DO NOT ANNOTATE THIS SENSE, AMR: ANNOTATE THIS SENSE! (from keep.06-v) KEEPING-N NOTES: (from keeping.06-n)


keep (v.)
keeping (n.)


        This should ONLY be annotated for AMR!!! not PropBank. (from keep.06-v)
        This is a complex preposition and takes NO ARGUMENT STRUCTURE! (from keeping.06-n)

        Arg1-PPT: thing conforming
        Arg2-GOL: conformed-to

Example: keep with

        ... in *trace=nothing* keeping with the reputation of the company.

        Arg1: *trace*
        Rel: keeping
        Arg2: with the reputation of the company.

Example: Both args

        person: ns,  tense: ns,  aspect: ns,  voice: ns,  form: ns

        There will be no flowers at the funeral, in keeping with the family's wishes.

        Arg1: There will be no flowers at the funeral
        Rel: keeping
        Arg2: with the family's wishes.

Roleset id: keep.LV , light verb, Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep.LV: KEEP-LV NOTES: This used to be keep.03 (from keep.LV-v)


keep (v.)


Predicate: keep_up

Roleset id: keep_up.05 , keep up: maintain one's position, maintaining one's position (relatively), Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep_up.05: KEEP_UP-V NOTES: There is a VN class for this VPC, but it's not relevant. (from keep.05-v) KEEPING_UP-N NOTES: (from keeping.05-n)


keep_up (v.)
keeping_up (n.)


        Arg0-PAG: maintainer of position
        Arg1-PPT: relative to what

Example: keeping up with the Joneses

        person: ns,  tense: ns,  aspect: ns,  voice: active,  form: full

        John can't keep up with Mary's rapid mood swings.

        Arg0: John
        Argm-mod: ca
        Argm-neg: n't
        Rel: [keep][up]
        Arg1: with Mary's rapid mood swings

Roleset id: keep_up.10 , sustain, Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep_up.10: KEEP_UP-V NOTES: Member of Vncls 55.6. Comparison to keep.01. Added by Julia based on examples in Brown. (from keep.10-v) KEEPING_UP-N NOTES: (from keeping.10-n)


keeping_up (n.)
keep_up (v.)Activity_ongoing


        this sense is transitive, vs. the other 'keep_up', which is intransitive. In this sense, the state of arg1 is what is being maintained, and in the other sense, arg0's state is being maintained. (from keep.10-v)
        Arg0-PAG: agent (vnrole: 55.6-agent)
        Arg1-PPT: thing maintained/sustained (vnrole: 55.6-theme)
        Arg2-MNR: instrument (vnrole: 55.6-instrument)

Example: maintaining physical entity's good condition

        person: third,  tense: present,  aspect: ns,  voice: active,  form: gerund

        He did not like to think of all the time and rags and polishes he-1 had spent on *-1 keeping the house up .

        Arg0: *-1: he
        Rel: [keeping] [up]
        Arg1: the house

Predicate: keep_on

Roleset id: keep_on.08 , keep on: aspectual, aspectual, Source: , vncls: , framnet:

keep_on.08: KEEP_ON-V NOTES: (from keep.08-v) KEEPING_ON-N NOTES: (from keeping.08-n)


keep_on (v.)
keeping_on (n.)


        Arg0-PAG: causer of continuation, volitional
        Arg1-PPT: continued entity
        Arg2-PRD: continued event or state

Example: aspectual

        person: ns,  tense: future,  aspect: ns,  voice: active,  form: full

        State monopolies will keep on [*-1] stifling trade, ``free'' prices or not, until something else replaces them.

        Arg1: State monopolies
        Arg2: [*-1] stifling trade
        Argm-mod: will
        Rel: keep on
        Argm-adv: ``free'' prices or not
        Argm-tmp: until something else replaces them