hold-v; 10 Senses

Sense Number 1: physically grasp, position, or support something

Commentary: Syntax Is: NP1[agent] HOLD (NP2[theme[concrete]])
NOTE: Compare to sense 2. This sense must include an agentive subject. Includes: HOLD CLOSE, HOLD ON, HOLD OUT, HOLD TIGHT

Hold this bowl for a moment, please.
The child is holding a cookie in each hand.
Hold on tightly!
I held the tiller while John went forward to untangle the jib.
Hold the fire extinguisher directly on the flames.
The minister held out his hand, and I grasped it in a firm handshake.
We held our noses when we passed near the dead skunk on the
He held his ears as the F-15s flew by overhead.

VerbNet: body_motion-49.2,hold-15.1-1
FrameNet: Manipulation
PropBank: hold.01,hold.06
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 2, 31, 33
WordNet Verb Particle Constructions, Multiword Expressions:
hold_tight 1
hold_on 1
hold_close 1
hold_out 1

Sense Number 2: support something; bear, carry

Commentary: Syntax Is: NP1[-agent] HOLD (NP2[theme[concrete]])
NOTE: Compare to sense 1. This sense does not include an agent. Includes: HOLD IN, HOLD UP

Only a single nail is holding that heavy picture to the wall.
Can the roof hold all that weight?
That beam holds up the roof.
That case used to hold my grandfather's violin.
The canteen holds fresh water.
He just can't hold his liquor.
She can really hold a grudge!
She held in all her anger.
He held a memory of her in his heart.
My coin purse won't hold any more change.
The last chapter holds the key to how the murder was done.

VerbNet: contain-15.4,keep-15.2,support-15.3
FrameNet: NM
PropBank: hold.01,hold.13
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 4, 6, 10, 11, 14, 17, 18, 32
WordNet Verb Particle Constructions, Multiword Expressions:
hold_in 1, 2, 3
hold_up 1

Sense Number 3: restrain, suppress, or confine something or someone

Commentary: Syntax Is: NP1[agent[animate]] HOLD NP2 Includes: HOLD BACK, HOLD DOWN

The terrorists held the journalists for ransom.
Hold your tongue.
'Hold your fire until you see the whites of their eyes!'
He can hold his breath for 3 minutes!
She held back a snicker.
Hold down the noise or I'm calling the police!

VerbNet: keep-15.2
FrameNet: Become_silent,Detaining,Inhibit_movement
PropBank: hold.07
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 7, 27, 8, 22, 36, 30, 21, 26
WordNet Verb Particle Constructions, Multiword Expressions:
hold_down 2
hold_back 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Sense Number 4: maintain or reserve; keep intact


That story held my attention for hours.
They're holding a table at Maxim's for us.
He held the taxi as she came down the stairs.
Please hold all my calls until I return this afternoon.
Hold your friends close and your enemies closer.
I'll hold open the position as long as I can.
He held firm despite the pressure to change his vote.
Hold on. I'll be back in a minute.
Just hold tight; the ambulance will be here in a minute.
You should hold your head straight when you sing.
They held over the movie for another week.
The scientists held off announcing their results until they
repeated the experiment.

VerbNet: sustain-55.6
FrameNet: Change_event_time,Holding_off_on,Reserving
PropBank: hold.03,hold.05,hold.08,hold.16
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 1, 14, 19, 22, 28
WordNet Verb Particle Constructions, Multiword Expressions:
hold_open 1
hold_tight 1
hold_on 2, 3, 4
hold_off 2
hold_over 2, 3, 4, 5
hold_firm 1

Sense Number 5: remain unchanged, stay intact

NOTE: Intransitive. Syntax Is: NP1 HOLD Includes: HOLD FAST, HOLD OUT, HOLD UP

If the weather holds, we'll go sailing tomorrow.
The old bridge has held through two major earthquakes.
Do you think the chain will hold?
The revamped defensive line is holding up.
The ropes held fast through the storm.
We held out for three days without food or water.
Those shoes will never hold up in all this snow.
This theory still holds.
The same rules will hold for all members of our club.

VerbNet: exist-47.1
FrameNet: NM
PropBank: hold.09,hold.11,hold.15
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 13, 15, 24, 25
WordNet Verb Particle Constructions, Multiword Expressions:
hold_fast 1
hold_out 2, 3, 4, 5
hold_up 5, 6, 7

Sense Number 6: maintain an attitude, belief, or opinion

NOTE: Transitive. Syntax Includes: NP1 HOLD NP2[patient[abstract]] NP1 HOLD SCOMP NP1 HOLD PP Includes: HOLD DEAR

We hold these truths to be self evident.
Rousseau's philosophy holds that people are inherently good.
She was held in contempt of court.
I hold with John that we should drink the good wine first.
Take a stand for the principles we hold dear.

VerbNet: conjecture-29.5-1
FrameNet: Opinion
PropBank: hold.02,hold.14
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 5, 16, 34, 35
WordNet Verb Particle Constructions, Multiword Expressions:
hold_dear 1

Sense Number 7: possess or control something, e.g., money, position of authority, honor

Commentary: Syntax Is: NP1 HOLD NP2 Includes: HOLD DOWN, HOLD ON

Most of the stock is held by just the founders of that firm.
The dissatisfied students held the President's office for almost a week.
When the battle ended, the Union troops still held the ridge.
They hold four gold medals from their past competitions.
Will she hold office of assistant dean?
He held the chairmanship for 10 years.
His father held two advanced degrees from Harvard.
She held down two jobs in order to support her family.
His wife held on to his clothes long after he had died.
I still hold to my theory that right makes might.

VerbNet: own-100.1
FrameNet: Change_event_time,Defending,Retaining
PropBank: NM
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 4, 9, 20, 23, 29
WordNet Verb Particle Constructions, Multiword Expressions:
hold_on 5
hold_down 1

Sense Number 8: fit, have capacity

Commentary: Syntax Is: NP1[location] HOLD NP2[value] NP1[agent] HOLD NP2[value] IN NP3[location]

This can holds five gallons.
The opera house holds two thousand people.

VerbNet: fit-54.3
FrameNet: Containing
PropBank: hold.01
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 12

Sense Number 9: conduct a social event

Commentary: Includes: LIGHT VERB usage

We held a reception in his honor.
They held a special emergency meeting last week.
They are holding inquiries next week.

VerbNet: conduct-111.1
FrameNet: NM
PropBank: hold.04
WordNet 3.0 Sense Numbers: 3

Sense Number 10: VPCs and multiword expressions


He held forth at length on his views of modern life.
No one plays better. She can hold her own against anyone.
He held the threat of expulsion over her.
I won't hold still for that kind of behavior!
The GOP held sway for several years, until the Democrats won the House.
We were held up at gunpoint!
He held up his sister as a shining example of purity.
That theory just doesn't hold water.
Hurry up. Don't hold up the whole group.
She held him to his promise.
When it comes to raising prices, just hold the line.

VerbNet: NM
FrameNet: Change_event_time,Robbery,Speak_on_topic
PropBank: hold.10
WordNet Verb Particle Constructions, Multiword Expressions:
hold_the_line 1, 2
hold_one's_own 1, 2
hold_up 3, 4
hold_water 1
hold_still_for 1
hold_forth 1
hold_sway 1
hold_over 1